Рефераты. Business at work

Business at work


What I need to do?

In this coursework I need to produce a detailed business report on one

medium–sized or large business. In investigating a chosen Case Study I must

comment and analyze each of the following aspects of the Business:





Communication Channels

Quality Assurance and Control

“Adding Value”

I need to examine how these factors interrelate to affect the success of

the business. Also I need to explain how quality assurance and control

systems help the business to add value to its products and services.

As example for my investigation I chose Tesco plc., because Tesco is good

example of public limited company and Tesco – is a most popular

supermarket’s network in UK.

How businesses are classified?

I can classify the business by form, by industrial sector, by ownership, by

objective, by size and by location or market.

Forms of businesses.


Oldest, simplest, most common form of business easy to set up enterprise.

A sole trader exists where a single person owns a business. This is very

common form of organization. Over recent years, the number of sole traders

has grown significantly. There are several reasons for this trend including

more opportunities to work for firms on consultancy basis and government

support for self-employment. Most sole traders work on their own .

Initial capital – savings or borrowed. Very common in retailing, service



- Easy to set up with little capital and few legal formalities

- The owner controls the business - quick decision making

- Personal contact with customers

- All profits belong to owner

- Satisfaction, motivation, interest in “Working for yourself”

- Business affairs are private – except far tax returns


- Unlimited liability for any loss or debts incurred: owner is

responsible or liable

- Cannot “Buy in bulk” and enjoy “Economies of scale”

- Expansions limited by available capital

- Division of labour is difficult

- Continuity a problem…

Good example of sole trader is T. Regan Plant Hire.


The minimum membership is two partners and the maximum twenty.

Must be at least one general partner who is fully liable for all debts and

obligations of the practice. “Sleeping partner” – not active. Partnership

exist mainly in the professions – doctors, lawyers, accountants and

surveyors frequently run their organization in the form of partnership.

Partnerships normally operate in local or regional markets, though advanced

in information technology are allowing many professions to offer their

services more widely.


- Easy to set up

- More capital with extra partners

- Division of labour – specialization

- Responsibility can be shared e.g. long working hours redused


- Partners have unlimited liability

- Disagreement can cause problems – no sole decision – maker or owner

- Lack of capital may still hinder expansion

- Profits must be shared among all co-owners

- Problem of continuity

Good example of partnership is Rolls-Royce.


A company is defined as an association of persons that contributes money

(or equivalent value in goods and assets) to a common stock, employ it in

some trade or business, and share the profit or loss arising out of that

business. Join stock companies are governed by and registered under the

Companies Act 1985. A company has a separate legal identity form its

members and can sue in its own name. There are two types of company: public

companies and private companies. Both require minimum two shareholders, and

there is no upper limit on the number of shareholders. All companies enjoy

the benefit of limited liability. Capital is raised by selling shares.


Shares can be transferred privately. All must agree.Private limited

companies are suitable for small and medium-sized operations. This type of

business organization is particularly suitable for family firms and for

small enterprises involving just a handful of people.

Private limited companies find it easier to attract capital because

investors have the benefit of limited liability and this access to finance

makes it simpler for the business to grow.


- Shareholders have limited liability

- More capital can be raised

- Control of company held within the firm

- Shares are transferable


- Profit are shared out among more people

- Legal procedures…involve time

- Not allowed to cell shares to the public

- Restricts amount of capital raised

- Difficult to find a buyer if shareholder wishes to “leave”

Good example of privet limited company is Littlewoods Ltd.


The second type of limited company tends to be larger and is called a

public limited company. There are about 1.2 million registered limited

companies in the UK, but only 1 per cent of them are public limited

companies. However they contribute with far more to national output and

employ far more people than private limited companies.

Good example of public limited company is Tesco plc. which I going to



Co-operatives are organised on a regional basis. Members can purchase

shares and each member has one vote at the Annual General Meeting, no

matter how many shares are owned. Members elect a board of directors who

appoint managers to run day to day

business. The Co-operative is run in the interests of its customers and

part of any surplus is distributed to members as dividend. Shares are not

sold on the stock exchange, which limits the amount of money that can be


Good example of co-operative is CRS (Co-operative Retail Society).


Charities are organisations with very specialised aims. They exist to raise

money for “good” causes and draw attention to the needs of disadvantaged

groups in society. They also rise awareness and pass comment on issues,

such as cold weather payments, which relate to the elderly.

Charities rely on donations for their revenue. They also organise fund

raising events such as fetes, jumble sales, sponsored activities and

ruffles. A number of charities run business ventures. Charities are

generally run according to business principles. They aim to minimise costs,

market themselves and employ staff. Most staff are volunteers, but some of

the larger charities employ professionals. In the larger charities a lot of

administration is necessary to deal with huge quantities of correspondence

and handle charity funds. Provided charities are registered, they are not

required to pay tax. In addition, business can offset any charitable

donations they make against tax. This helps charities when raising funds.

Good example of charity is British Red Cross.


A franchise is not a form of business organisation as such, but a way of

managing and growing a business. Franchising covers a variety of

arrangements under which the owner of a businnes idea grants other

individuals or groups to trade using that name or idea. However, it is

important to realise that a franchise can trade as a sole trader, a

partnership or a private limited company. The legal form of business that

is chosen will depend on the capital needed, the degree of risk, the number

of people having a stake in the franchise and the personal preferences of

the owner. The person or organisation selling the idea (the franchisor)

gains a number of advantages from the process of franchising. The

franchisor normally receives a share of the profits generated by the

franchise. Usually the franchisee benefits by being granted rights to an

exclusive territory and support from the franchiser in the form of staff

training, advertising and promotion.

Franchising is a cheap and quick way to set up your own business. By the

year 2004, it is estimated that 70 per cent of all new retail outlets in

the US will be franchises.

Good example of franchise is McDonald’s.

Industrial sectors.

PRIMARY – extractive organisations.

SECONDARY – manufacturing organisations.

TERTIARY – providing-services organisations.


PUBLIC SECTOR: Civil service, Government departments, Public corporations,

Local Authorities.

PRIVATE SECTOR: Sole traders, Partnerships, Limited companies, Charities,

Co-operatives, Franchises.


- To make a profit

- To “Break – even”

- To provide service


- Small

- Medium

- Large


- Local

- Regional

- National

- Multinational


Tesco plc.


Tesco was founded in 1924. Over the last seventy years, as the food

retailing market has changed, the company has grown and developed,

responding to new opportunities and pioneering many innovations. Today it

is Britain’s leading food retailer.

The founder of Tesco was Sir Jack Cohen. He used his gratuity from his Army

service in the First World War to start selling groceries in London’s East

End markets in 1919. The brand name of Tesco first appeared on packets of

tea in the 1920s. The name was based on the initials of T.E. Stockwell, a

partner in the firm of tea suppliers, and the first two letters of Cohen.

Страницы: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.